Both diseases run on my moms side of the family and,so far I have a few of those symptoms(according to my mom)
but,I don’t know much.Like I have cuts and bruises,that never go away.Thats one thing.(I have to get a ganglion removed dec 5)although,my feet are also effected.
So,symptoms of diabetes?
symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis?(19 yrs old)
There are basically two types of gene mutations in respect to disease. One type of mutation causes a disease. For example, the mutant gene may cause achrondroplasia (a form of dwarfism) or it may cause hemophilia or cystic fibrosis or sickle cell disease. The existence of genes that cause diseases has long been recognized.
The other type of gene mutation does not directly cause a disease but rather predisposes to it. These genes make a person susceptible to developing a disease. These susceptibility genes often involve common chronic diseases such as diabetes and rheumatoid arthritis.
An important finding has just been made about the genetic susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis and autoimmunity. We will outline the finding.
Background: Rheumatoid arthritis is the most common systemic autoimmune disease. It affects 1% of all adults in the world. The disease is characterized by immune-mediated destruction of the joint architecture. It is 2 to 3 times more common in women than men. The heritability of rheumatoid arthritis is 60%, reflecting a strong genetic component in the disease.
Design of Research: To identify genes involved in the susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis, a "discovery study" was done testing for 87 variations called SNPs (single-nucleotide polymorphisms) in candidate genes and regions. The discovery study involved 475 individuals with rheumatoid arthritis and 475 individually matched controls.
Result: One of the SNPs was found to be associated with rheumatoid arthritis. It was a "missense" SNP in a gene encoding a protein tyrosine phosphorylase. This risk SNP was present in 28% of those with rheumatoid arthritis and 17% of the controls
Comment: A variant of this same SNP encoding the same phosphorylase enzyme was recently found associated with type 1 diabetes, another autoimmune disease. It is beginning to look as if this variant phosphatase may increase the overall reactivity of the immune system and may raise the risk for autoimmune disease.
Diabetes Diet Plan
Diet plays a key role in controlling your blood sugar. A healthy diabetes diet plan tailored to your needs will do that and more. Majority of people affected with diabetes are overweight or obese. In fact, your risk of getting diabetes increases the more weight you put on.
So making a diabetes diet plan can be the key to reducing the risk of diabetes as well as improving your symptoms if you are already affected by this disease people often refer to as “the silent killer.”
If you are having diabetes, it doesn’t mean that you should start eating special foods or depend on only strict diabetic diet plan. In most of the case, it is simply switching to a variety of foods in moderate amounts but following a fixed timing as a diabetes diet.
You should not follow a complicated diabetes diet plan, rather your diabetes diet plan should comprise with a wise selection of nutrients and low in calorie and fatty contents. There are two essential factors that you must not forget while preparing your diabetes diet plan. One is eating foods at regular time every day and the second point is the selection of healthy food in right amounts as part of diabetes diet.
Carbohydrate counting is a crucial part for healthy diabetes diet plan, especially if you are on insulin medication. In fact, fat and protein counting is not as important as carbohydrate counting is in diabetes diet. But that doesn’t mean you should not be careful enough about the fat or protein intake of your diabetes diet. High calorie and high fat always increase the risk of various health complications including cardiac problems, high cholesterol and high blood pressure.
Diabetes Diet Plan and Goal
Diabetic diet plan differ from person to person due to our daily nutritional needs and type of diabetes a person suffers. Following are the most common type of diabetes diet:
Type 1 Diabetes Diet – Type 1 diabetes always requires insulin treatment, the main focus is to find a balance between the food intake and insulin.
Type 2 Diabetic Diet – Type 2 diet focus on controlling weight in order to improve the body’s ability to utilize insulin. In most cases Type 2 diabetes can be controlled through proper diet and exercise alone.
Gestational Diabetes Diet – unlike the Type 2 diet, gestational diabetes diet focus on adequate energy and nutrients to support both the mother’s body and growing baby while maintaining stable blood glucose levels for the pregnant mother.
Diabetes Diet : Diabetic Guidelines
1. Drink plenty of water (to aid in kidney function).
2. Aim for slow but sustainable weight loss.
3. Eat little and often – this helps keep blood sugar levels even.
4. Don’t eat less than 25% fats, as essential fats will help to slow down absorption of the meal.
5. Try to eat plenty of fresh fruits, salads, and vegetables.
Vitamins For Diabetes
Vitamins are essential to sustain life and we need to take the required amounts from our daily foods or dietary supplements. The benefits they provide help people feel more energetic, and assist the body in its regular functions.
As a diabetic patient is not able to get all the required nutrition from diet because of impaired functioning of the system, some vitamins may be required to take along with the regular medication. But, before taking any vitamin supplements, it is important to check with a doctor for what affect it may have upon diabetes.
Some of the essential vitamins for diabetics are -
People with diabetes need extra vitamin E, which improves insulin activity and acts as an antioxidant (helps reduce the risk of diabetic complications), fights toxins and oxygenates the blood. Research has shown that people with low blood levels of vitamin E are more likely to develop Type 2 diabetes. In type 2 diabetics, it improves glucose tolerance.
It may require at least 2-3 months or more of regular intake of Vitamin E supplementation for benefits to become apparent. If one is taking an anticoagulant like ecospirin, aspirin (blood thinner), consult a physician before taking supplemental vitamin E.
Dietary sources include fortified & multi-grain cereals, nuts, wheat germ, vegetable oils, green leafy vegetables.
Type 1 diabetic patients generally have low vitamin C levels. By increasing the amount of vitamin c in the bloodstream, the amount of sorbitol may get reduced. Sorbitol is a destructive sugar that can accumulate and lead to increased risk of diabetic complications such as retinopathy (eye), neuropathy (nerves) and renal damage. Vitamin C also helps improve glucose tolerance in the case of type 2 diabetic people. Doctors recommend between 1 – 3 g of Vitamin C dosage per day for diabetics.
Dietary sources include fresh vegetables and citrus fruits, such as broccoli, green and red pepper, cauliflower, lemon, cabbage, pineapples, strawberries, oranges, olives, citrus fruits.
Vitamin B6 is also known as pyridoxine. Diabetics who have a deficiency of this vitamin mostly suffer from neuropathy (nerve damage), and benefit from its supplementation. Peripheral neuropathy is a common outcome of vitamin B6 deficiency. Pyridoxine supplements are able to improve glucose tolerance, particularly for women with gestational diabetes, or impaired glucose tolerance caused by intake of birth control pill.
Vitamin B6 is also important in preventing other diabetic complications as it is an important non-protein compound that combines with the protein – collagen to form an active enzyme.
Dietary sources include chicken, fish, liver, whole grains, nuts, and legumes.
Vitamin B12 supplementation does to quite an extent help treat diabetic neuropathy. The presence of Vitamin B 12 is necessary for the correct functioning of nerve cells, and therefore taking it as a supplement may help reduce nerve damage.
Vitamin B12 may be taken orally in capsule form or intravenously or by injection to reduce nerve damage caused by diabetes in most people.
Recommended dosage is up to 500 mcg of Vitamin B12 three times a day.
Dietary sources include liver, yogurt, dairy products, fish, non fat milk.
Vitamin D is both a hormone and a vitamin. Vitamin D deficiency predisposes individuals to type 1 and type 2diabetes. Low levels of vitamin D interfere with the proper functioning of insulin-producing cells. If not enough insulin is present, blood glucose levels will begin to rise.
Those with higher blood levels of vitamin D have better sensitivity to insulin and lower blood glucose levels compared to those with low vitamin D levels.
The skin is the most plentiful source of vitamin D. When exposed to ultraviolet light, our skin can produce as much as 20,000 IU of vitamin D. Food sources are limited to egg yolks, liver, cod liver oil and fortified milk.
Biotin (Vitamin B8) -
Biotin is a B vitamin needed to process glucose. It works in harmonization with insulin in the body, and independently increases the activity of the enzyme glucokinase (responsible in the primary step of glucose utilization). Glucokinase is formed only in the liver, and its concentration may be extremely low in diabetic patients.
Supplements of biotin may have a significant effect on glucose metabolism for both type 1 and type 2 diabetics. It might to an extent help reduce pain from diabetic nerve damage.
Experts advise taking 16mg of biotin for a few weeks to see for any changes in blood sugar levels.
Dietary sources include cereal, grain products, yeast, liver, legumes.
Niacin (Vitamin B3)
High levels of niacin may actually weaken glucose tolerance, and should therefore be avoided by diabetics. However, smaller amounts (500-750 mg per day for one month followed by 250 mg per day) can help some type 2 diabetics to lower their glucose levels.
Dietary sources include liver, poultry, milk, leafy green vegetables.
ALA and GLA
ALA (alpha-lipoic acid) is a potent and natural antioxidant, and may function to help diabetic neuropathy and reduce pain from free-radical break up. Some studies link ALA to decreased insulin resistance and thus, the control of blood sugar.
GLA (gamma-lipoic acid) is another naturally occurring antioxidant. It is helpful for improving damaged nerve function, which is common in diabetes.
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